Current concepts of invertebrate phylogeny are reviewed. Annelida and Arthropoda, previously regarded as closely related, are now placed in separate clades. Myelin, a sheath of multiple layers of membranes around nerve axons, is found in members of the Annelida, Arthropoda and Chordata. The structure, composition and function of the sheaths in Annelida and Arthropoda are examined and evidence for the separate evolutionary origins of myelin in the three clades is presented. That myelin has arisen independently at least three times, namely in Annelids, Arthropodas and Chordates, provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution.
so what… stuff happens …