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Repeated evolution of venom: 100+ independent origins of complex chemical mixtures

Venoms are complex mixtures of enzymes and proteins of various sizes, amines, lipids, nucleosides, and carbohydrates. Venoms also contain various metal ions that are presumed to act as cofactors and include sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and zinc.

Spiders are one of the most successful venomous animals, with more than 48,000 described species. Most spider venoms are dominated by cysteine-rich peptides with a diverse range of pharmacological activities. Some spider venoms contain thousands of unique peptides, but little is known about the mechanisms used to generate such complex chemical arsenals.

A lay person may think, that long time ago, there was some venomous universal common ancestor in which venom evolved slowly, gradually, step by step and then, this chemical recipe was shared with all the other venomous species on this planet.

BUT NO! Darwinists claim, that such a complex mixture of chemicals should have evolved repeatedly from scratch, more than 100 times, independently, in various evolutionary unrelated species (spiders, snakes, mammals, etc. )

Why would Darwinists make such absurd claims ? Wouldn’t be more convenient to use an universal venomous common ancestor to make the venom evolution theory more believable ? Darwinists just can’t. If they would, their theory of evolution falls apart instantly …

On more than 100 occasions, animals have independently evolved the ability to produce and deliver potent secretions to subdue prey or predators—venom. This prompts the following question: Have animals repeatedly adopted the same genetic toolkit for venom production? In this study, we found, surprisingly, that the venom glands of different animal lineages had similar global gene expression patterns. Notably, groups of genes involved in protein secretion, and especially stress response pathways, had similar expression levels, revealing that many animals have come up with the same solution independently. On the other hand, signaling and regulatory networks had lineage-specific patterns, suggesting that the way in which cells are regulated and communicate might reflect the diverse developmental origins of venom systems.

Darwinists believe in miracles …